Essay on Pollution- Air, Water, Soil Pollution

Essay on Pollution: Earth is the only planet where life is possible as it has all the important components that essential for the survival of living beings. But as time has changed the devastating and excessive intervention of humans in the environment and natural resources has given rise to severe problems like Pollution.

Pollution is the major problems that countries around the world are facing today. Pollution can occur naturally or through human activities. The ever increasing need of humans and thirst for development are the biggest reasons behind this universal problem.

Every year millions of people are killed due to different kinds of pollution. Pollution is the serious matter of concern as it is a great threat to earth and ultimately to humans and other living organisms. The increasing level of pollution is giving an invitation to severe environmental and health problems.

All the humans are aware of this problem of pollution but there are only few who are concerned about it and are working for controlling it.

What is Pollution?

Pollution can be defined as the mixing of harmful contaminants in the air, water, soil and other natural resources on the earth and adversely affect them. It is the contamination of air, water, soil by contaminants that are harmful to all the living organisms.  Pollution is when something poisonous is added to the environment.

The components of pollution are known as pollutants. These pollutants can be either foreign energies/contaminants or occur naturally in the environment. Pollutants are solid, liquid and gaseous component present in such an amount which can be dangerous for the environment.

Smoke, dust, Sulphur, Carbon Monoxide, Mercury, Lead, Fertilizers, radioactive active waste, nitric acid, Sulphuric acid, pesticides etc are some of the examples of pollutants.

In simple terms, pollution means the introduction of harmful substances that contaminate the natural resources and environment.

Pollution in any form brings adverse changes in the natural environments that are dangerous to all the living beings.

Types of Pollution

There are different forms of pollution like- Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil/Land pollution, Sound Pollution, Plastic pollution, Agricultural pollution, Thermal Pollution etc. Here we have shared details about some of the major forms of Pollution which are air, water, and soil.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution

The contamination of air by various poisonous and harmful pollutants is known as air pollution. The mixing of hazardous gases into the air and decreasing the quality of air can be referred to as air pollution.

The introduction of harmful substances like smoke, dust, particulates, gases etc into the air and when it makes it difficult for the survival of living beings is known as Air pollution.

Cause of Air pollution

There are various sources and causes of air pollution that are responsible for declining the quality of air.  Some of the major causes of air pollution are-

  • Use of various chemical and toxic substances in a household like a spray, paints, adhesives etc is the reason for indoor air pollution and ultimately affects the environment.
  • Exhaust and harmful fumes release directly from factories and industries into the air are another cause of air pollution.
  • Forest fire and a volcanic eruption is a natural cause of air pollution. However, forest fires are not always natural sometimes human are also responsible for it.
  • The burning of fossil fuels- The combustion of coal and petrol give rise to the number of pollutants in the air and thus causing air pollution.
  • Mining activities- During mining the dust and chemicals are released into the air.


Air pollution has an adverse effect on plants, animals, humans and on the environment. Some of the detrimental effects of air pollution include-

Greenhouse effect, global warming, depletion of ozone layer, Chronic respiratory disorders, skin problems and other health problems, acid rains, Eutrophication,

How to control Air Pollution

Several ways to prevent and control Air pollution are as follows-

  • Conservation of energy- More the consumption of energy more fuel (coal) will be used to produce energy and more harmful gases will be released.
  • Use public transport as much as possible.
  • Reduce the use of harmful toxins and products containing hazardous pollutants.
  • Stop deforestation and grow more trees as they are the only source of fresh and clean air.
  • Move to clean energies sources like solar, wind and thermal energy. These energy sources are renewable sources of life help in reducing pollution.

Water Pollution

Water Pollution

Water pollution is another serious environmental problem. After air water is the second thing that is important for the survival of human beings. The amount of potable water (which is suitable for drinking) is very low and this is the reason that a million people die every year by drinking contaminated water.

Water pollution can be defined as the contamination of water by harmful and toxic substances. Any kind of physical, chemical and biological changes in the quality of water which are harmful to plants, animals, and humans is known as water pollution.

Rivers and oceans are highly polluted as a huge amount of solid and liquid waste are discharged (directly or indirectly) into these water bodies every minute.

Cause of Water Pollution

Some of the main reasons behind water pollution are-

  • Dumping of household and industrial waste into the water bodies.
  • Agriculture runoffs that contain a big amount of chemical substances (fertilizers, pesticides etc) which are dangerous for aquatic life and soil.
  • Landfills contain a huge amount of waste which is the biggest reason for groundwater pollution.
  • Discharge of untreated sewage directly into rivers, lakes, and
  • Plastics
  • Radioactive waste
  • Oil Spills


  • Water pollution leads to major health problems to humans and animals.
  • Formation of algal blooms in water bodies due to the increased amount of nitrogen and phosphorous.
  • A severe damage to aquatic/marine life.

How to control water Pollution

  • Reduce runoffs.
  • Reduce the consumption of plastics and products made from plastic.
  • Stop dumping of household and industrial waste.
  • Reduce the use of chemicals.
  • Proper management of household wastewater and industrial wastewater.

Land/ Soil Pollution


The soil is again an important natural resource that plays a crucial role in the survival of plants, animals, and humans. It is something on which the whole food chain is depended upon.

Soil pollution is defined as the mixing of polluted material, chemicals, and toxins in the soil and degrading its quality. The increased concentration of contaminants in the soil decreases the quality of soil which becomes a threat to the environment.

Cause of Soil Pollution

  • Excessive use of fertilizers, herbicides, and
  • Improper disposal of waste from households, industries, nuclear plants etc.
  • Intensive farming.
  • Bad irrigation practices.
  • Acid rain also degrades the quality of land.
  • Oil spills and mining activities.
  • Discharge of contaminated surface water into the soil.
  • The day by day increasing construction activities are also responsible for depleting the quality of the soil.


Soil pollution has various detrimental effects on humans, other living organism and environment. Soil erosion, toxic dust, decreased fertility of the land, etc are some of the effects of soil pollution that harms the soil itself.

Soil pollution also affects the entire food chain as it is the base of the food chain. Soil pollution is equally harmful to all the elements in food chains and ultimately to the ecosystem.

How to control Soil Pollution

Soil pollution can be prevented and controlled by taking various measures such as-

  • Proper disposal of industrial effluents and household waste.
  • Reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and try to use organic fertilizers.
  • Proper farming techniques.
  • Plant more trees and reduce deforestation. Planting more trees will reduce soil erosion.
  • Recycle and reuse waste.

Industrialization, urbanization, and overpopulation are some of the general causes of pollution. pollution creates disturbance in the environmental and natural cycle of nature that results into climate change and various natural hazards.

Pollution is a major environmental issue that should not be taken for granted. A serious action should be taken to save this earth from increasing pollution.

We should not forget that we humans are the biggest reason behind the continuously growing problem of pollution; therefore, it is our duty to solve this problem before it gets too late.

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