Can you imagine how would be your life without machines if you were born before the industrial revolution?
The answer is pretty difficult for this generation.
At this time when you have a number of gadgets and machines and you are depended on them for your various tasks, it will be quite difficult for you to imagine this.
Before the industrial revolution, people have to perform all the activities manually as there were no machines. Only animals were there to assist humans in some work like farming and few other things. But with the introduction of industrialization and technology, everything changed. The industrial revolution is the reason behind the urbanization and industrialization. The modern cities where we are living today are an outcome of this historical change.
Industrial Revolution Summary
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The industrial revolution was one of the biggest turning points and impactful events in the history that changed the complete scenario of the world. This period marks huge changes in manufacturing and transportations system of the world.
The industrial revolution was started in Great Britain. It was basically started in the textile industry and then spread to other industries in Britain and finally to the rest of the world. Before the Industrial Revolution, people used to live in small farming villages but with the advent of the industrial revolution, the lives of people were entirely changed.
The industrial age was the time when factories were the heart of every industrial city. It was the time when people started working in factories instead of working in houses. However, there were also people like Karl Marx and Engels who believed that it has enriched the rich the upper class and wealthy people and have impoverished the poor.
Overall the Industrial Revolution was the period which brought massive technological, economic, cultural and social changes across the world that affected the lives of people to a big extent.
Industrial Revolution Definition
Industrial Revolution can be defined as the changes in the economy by the introduction of machines and technology into it for the purpose of development. It can also be explained as the time period that noticed a gradual shift of an agrarian economy to manufacturing and a capitalist economy by the implementation of power tools and machinery.
The industrial revolution was a time period when manual labor was replaced by machines to increase production. It marks the replacement of hand tools and manual labor by power tools and machine for mass production in industries.
The industrial revolution was started back in the early 18th century in Britain. Britain is also known as the birthplace of the industrial revolution as major inventions of the world and technological & economical changes were noticed here during this period. During this period, Britain also experiences major cultural and social changes.
People shifted from rural areas to cities and from agriculture to industries for work. The first industrial revolution marks the development in the textile industry, steel, iron, and steam, railroads. The first industry to use modern machinery and tools for production was the textile industry, therefore, we can say that the industrial revolution was started in the textile industry.
Despite the fact that industrialization brought huge development there are also debates whether the industrial revolution was a boon or curse. It is because, besides the development and improvement of job opportunities, salary and lifestyle of people there were also some pitfalls of this revolution.
Some of the negative points of the industrial revolution were increased pollution, poor working conditions, child labor, shifting of people from agriculture to factories reduced productions in farms leading to abandoning of land, long working hours, the poor health condition of workers, excessive use of coal etc. All these gave rise to various labor movements.
Keeping all these negative factors aside, the Industrial Revolution is considered the beginning of this modern world where almost everything is supported by technology and innovation.
Second Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution saw rapid development in Britain and soon spread to the United States, Germany, France, Italy, and even Japan. The second industrial revolution started somewhere between 1820 and 1870. It was the time when America and few other countries went through major changes in the form of industrialization and other technological, economical, social and cultural changes.
The American Industrial Revolution is also known as the second industrial revolution. It witnessed the expansion of steel, electricity, and petroleum. The invention of the automobile and the airplane was one of the far-reaching inventions and a great example of innovation of the second industrial revolution.
Slowly this revolution spread to other countries and in mid 20th century, it hit the Asian countries like India and China.
Industrial Revolution Facts
- The birthplace of the Industrial Revolution was Britain and it was the country which was having the largest colonial empire in the world.
- The textile industry was starting points of the industrial revolution and cotton spinning mill powered by water was the first modern factory.
- Spinning jenny was the first machine or tool that started the revolution.
- Dramatic changes were observed in the production of goods and material in Britain between 1815 and
- The first railway line in Britain was opened by Stockton and Darlington Railway Company in 1825.
- Not everyone was happy with this revolution, Luddites a radical group of weaver and textile in Britain was one of them. To protest against the industrialization they destroyed weaver machinery.
- There was a huge rise in the consumption of fossil fuel as it was used to power the machinery.
- Many innovations and inventions took place during this period that changed the world.
- A huge population shift from rural to urban areas was noticed during this period. Only 15% of the people living in the countryside (rural areas) while others were shifted to cities.
- Child labor was common during this period.
- The industrial revolution was responsible for major issues of today’s world such as climate change, exploitation of fossil fuels, overpopulation, and environmental degradation.
Industrial Revolution Inventions
A number of the invention takes place during the period of the Industrial Revolution. The major inventions that changed the entire picture of the world are as follows-
- 1712- Thomas Newcomen invented the first productive steam engine called as the Newcomen Engine.
- 1719- First silk factor was started by John Lombe.
- 1733- James Kay a weaving machine which was known as the flying shuttle.
- 1764- Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves.
- 1769- Water Frame powered by waterwheel was invented by Richard Arkwright.
- 1769- James Watt created a revised version of Newcomen steam engine.
- 1774- Spinning Mule by Samuel Crompton.
- 1794- Cotton gin was patented by Eli Whitney
- 1785- Edmund Cartwright created the Power Loom.
- 1816- A steam locomotive engine was patented by George Stephenson.
- 1844- Telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse.
- 1846- The Sewing machine was invented by Elias Howe.
- 1855- Method for steel processing was invented by Henry Bessemer.
- 1866- Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel.
- 1870- Vaccine for diseases was developed by Louis Pasteur.
- 1876- Telephone was patented by Alexander Graham Bell.
- 1879- Thomas Alva Edison patented first light bulb.
- 1903- Wright Brothers invented Airplane.
- 1908- Model-T was created by Henry Ford.